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Zeatin is produced in roots and transported to shoots in the xylem where it promotes cell division, bud development, and the greening of chloroplasts. They are involved in the promotion of germination and dormancy-breaking in seeds, in regulation of plant height by controlling stem elongation and the control of flowering. It inhibits cell division, promotes seed maturation, and dormancy, and promotes stomatal closure. It was so named because it was originally thought to control abscission.

It is now known to be the hormone that stimulates or regulates fruit ripening and abscission, [] [] and it, or the synthetic growth regulator ethephon which is rapidly metabolised to produce ethylene, are used on industrial scale to promote ripening of cotton, pineapples and other climacteric crops. Another class of phytohormones is the jasmonates , first isolated from the oil of Jasminum grandiflorum [] which regulates wound responses in plants by unblocking the expression of genes required in the systemic acquired resistance response to pathogen attack.

In addition to being the primary energy source for plants, light functions as a signalling device, providing information to the plant, such as how much sunlight the plant receives each day. This can result in adaptive changes in a process known as photomorphogenesis. Phytochromes are the photoreceptors in a plant that are sensitive to light. Plant anatomy is the study of the structure of plant cells and tissues, whereas plant morphology is the study of their external form.


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Other plastids contain storage products such as starch amyloplasts or lipids elaioplasts. Uniquely, streptophyte cells and those of the green algal order Trentepohliales [] divide by construction of a phragmoplast as a template for building a cell plate late in cell division. The bodies of vascular plants including clubmosses , ferns and seed plants gymnosperms and angiosperms generally have aerial and subterranean subsystems. The shoots consist of stems bearing green photosynthesising leaves and reproductive structures. The underground vascularised roots bear root hairs at their tips and generally lack chlorophyll.

The root system and the shoot system are interdependent — the usually nonphotosynthetic root system depends on the shoot system for food, and the usually photosynthetic shoot system depends on water and minerals from the root system. In fact it is possible to grow an entire plant from a single leaf, as is the case with Saintpaulia , [] or even a single cell — which can dedifferentiate into a callus a mass of unspecialised cells that can grow into a new plant. Roots are often adapted to store food such as sugars or starch , [] as in sugar beets and carrots.


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Stems mainly provide support to the leaves and reproductive structures, but can store water in succulent plants such as cacti , food as in potato tubers , or reproduce vegetatively as in the stolons of strawberry plants or in the process of layering. All gymnosperms and many angiosperms are woody plants. Although reference to major morphological categories such as root, stem, leaf, and trichome are useful, one has to keep in mind that these categories are linked through intermediate forms so that a continuum between the categories results. Systematic botany is part of systematic biology, which is concerned with the range and diversity of organisms and their relationships, particularly as determined by their evolutionary history.

RBGE Herbarium: Basic Plant Collecting and Pressing

Biological classification is the method by which botanists group organisms into categories such as genera or species. Biological classification is a form of scientific taxonomy. Modern taxonomy is rooted in the work of Carl Linnaeus , who grouped species according to shared physical characteristics. These groupings have since been revised to align better with the Darwinian principle of common descent — grouping organisms by ancestry rather than superficial characteristics.

While scientists do not always agree on how to classify organisms, molecular phylogenetics , which uses DNA sequences as data, has driven many recent revisions along evolutionary lines and is likely to continue to do so. The dominant classification system is called Linnaean taxonomy. It includes ranks and binomial nomenclature.

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The nomenclature of botanical organisms is codified in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants ICN and administered by the International Botanical Congress. Kingdom Plantae belongs to Domain Eukarya and is broken down recursively until each species is separately classified. The scientific name of a plant represents its genus and its species within the genus, resulting in a single worldwide name for each organism. Lilium is the genus, and columbianum the specific epithet. The combination is the name of the species. When writing the scientific name of an organism, it is proper to capitalise the first letter in the genus and put all of the specific epithet in lowercase.

Additionally, the entire term is ordinarily italicised or underlined when italics are not available. The evolutionary relationships and heredity of a group of organisms is called its phylogeny. Phylogenetic studies attempt to discover phylogenies. The basic approach is to use similarities based on shared inheritance to determine relationships. They do not obviously resemble a typical leafless cactus such as an Echinocactus.

However, both Pereskia and Echinocactus have spines produced from areoles highly specialised pad-like structures suggesting that the two genera are indeed related. Judging relationships based on shared characters requires care, since plants may resemble one another through convergent evolution in which characters have arisen independently. Some euphorbias have leafless, rounded bodies adapted to water conservation similar to those of globular cacti, but characters such as the structure of their flowers make it clear that the two groups are not closely related.

The cladistic method takes a systematic approach to characters, distinguishing between those that carry no information about shared evolutionary history — such as those evolved separately in different groups homoplasies or those left over from ancestors plesiomorphies — and derived characters, which have been passed down from innovations in a shared ancestor apomorphies.

Only derived characters, such as the spine-producing areoles of cacti, provide evidence for descent from a common ancestor. The results of cladistic analyses are expressed as cladograms : tree-like diagrams showing the pattern of evolutionary branching and descent. From the s onwards, the predominant approach to constructing phylogenies for living plants has been molecular phylogenetics , which uses molecular characters, particularly DNA sequences, rather than morphological characters like the presence or absence of spines and areoles.

The difference is that the genetic code itself is used to decide evolutionary relationships, instead of being used indirectly via the characters it gives rise to. Clive Stace describes this as having "direct access to the genetic basis of evolution. Genetic evidence suggests that the true evolutionary relationship of multicelled organisms is as shown in the cladogram below — fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants. In , the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group published a phylogeny for flowering plants based on an analysis of DNA sequences from most families of flowering plants.

As a result of this work, many questions, such as which families represent the earliest branches of angiosperms , have now been answered. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

DNA Extraction from Herbarium Specimens

For other uses, see Botany disambiguation and Botanic disambiguation. For the journals, see Plant Science journal and Plant Biology journal. Main article: History of botany. Further information: Human nutrition. Plants make various photosynthetic pigments , some of which can be seen here through paper chromatography.

Chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll b. The Calvin cycle Interactive diagram The Calvin cycle incorporates carbon dioxide into sugar molecules. Carbon fixation.

Carbon dioxide. Glyceraldehydephosphate G3P. Inorganic phosphate. Ribulose 5-phosphate. Main article: Plant ecology. Main article: Plant genetics. A Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous for purple B and white b blossoms. Further information: Molecular genetics. Main article: Epigenetics. Main article: Evolutionary history of plants. Further information: Plant physiology. Further information: Plant hormone and Phytochrome. Play media. A diagram of a "typical" eudicot , the most common type of plant three-fifths of all plant species. Further information: Taxonomy biology.

Two cacti of very different appearance. Although Pereskia is a tree with leaves, it has spines and areoles like a more typical cactus, such as Echinocactus.

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Branches of botany Evolution of plants Glossary of botanical terms Glossary of plant morphology List of botany journals List of botanists List of botanical gardens List of botanists by author abbreviation List of domesticated plants List of flowers List of systems of plant taxonomy Outline of botany Timeline of British botany. A bunch of other chlorophylls exist in cyanobacteria and certain algal groups, but none of them are found in land plants.

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