Soy hija de padres sobrevivientes de Auschwitz. Esos son mis grandes temas.
I am the daughter of parents who were survivors of Auschwitz. My Polish father and my Hungarian mother arrived in Argentina, like so many others, seeking refuge, fleeing a Europe that did want them and that deprived them of their entire lives. I grew up embraced by numbered hands. I believe that my desire to become an artist was born from the necessity to have objects that would survive me.
All of my work is infused with Memory and identity. These are my central over-arching themes. We are who we are, beyond our own intention; I feel that I transmit the truth of my essence. Profesora y conferencista. Representa a Argentina en concursos y Bienales internacionales. Universidad de Maryland. She represents Argentina at International Biennials. Since then, she is Director of Laba-ba: a laboratory for Jewish Culture in BA that works together with LABA : house of study NY- Jury in printmaking and new media an Installations contests, and director of her own studio since where she mentors other artists.
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University of Maryland. Rosensaft NY. I live near Boston. I have dedicated my long academic career to seeking the simple in the complex and the complex in the simple. I am keen on free association, metaphor and symbol. I search for explanations by combining the verifiable and tangible with the imagination. I love flat water kayaking and tai-chi. View all posts by Stephen Sadow. Like Like. You are commenting using your WordPress.
The Jewish Presence in Latin America - Latin American Studies - Oxford Bibliographies
For example, some families have family-heirloom seven-branched candle sticks or the custom of lighting candles on Friday at sunset. The typical local dishes can be all prepared with kosher practices none mix milk and meat, pork is served, but never mixed with other foods. After almost five centuries, some of the descendants of these families claim awareness of Jewish origins, but practice Catholicism in certain cases with some Jewish syncretism. From independence in to the end of the 19th century, some Jewish merchants and traders both Sephardim and Ashkenazim immigrated to Bolivia.
Most took local women as wives, founding families that eventually merged into the mainstream Catholic society. This was often the case in the eastern regions of Santa Cruz, Tarija, Beni and Pando, where these merchants came from Brazil or Argentina.
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During the 20th century, substantial Jewish settlement began in Bolivia. In , a group of Russian Jews, followed by Argentines, settled in Bolivia. In , it was estimated that there were 20 to 25 professing Jews in the country. By , when the Nazi era in Germany started, there were 30 Jewish families. The first large Jewish immigration occurred during the s; the population had climbed to an estimated 8, at the end of During the s, 2, Jews emigrated from Bolivia to other countries.
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Today, approximately Jews remain in Bolivia. Jews settled early in Brazil, especially in areas of Dutch rule. They set up a synagogue in Recife in , which is considered the first synagogue in the Americas. Most of these Jews were conversos who had fled Spain and Portugal to the religious freedom of the Netherlands when the Inquisition began in Portugal in In , following the Portuguese reconquest of Brazil, Jews left for the Caribbean islands and New Amsterdam under Dutch rule; the latter was taken over by the English in and was renamed as New York City.
After independence in the 19th century, Brazil attracted more Jews among its immigrants, and pressure in Europe convinced more Jews to leave. Jewish immigration rose throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, at a time of massive emigration from the Russian Empire including Poland and Ukraine.
Jewish immigration to Brazil was rather low between — although this was the height of other international immigration to Brazil; many were going to more industrialized countries. This was in response to anti-immigration legislation and immigration quotas passed by the United States, Argentina, Canada and South Africa, persisting even after the crisis of Jews under the Third Reich became clear.
The Brazilian government generally did not enforce its own immigration legislation. Lastly, the Jews in Brazil developed strong support structures and economic opportunities, which attracted Eastern European and Polish Jewish immigration. Brazil has the 9th largest Jewish community in the world , about , by , according to the IBGE census. They have had key roles both before and after its independence in Other Chilean Jews who have achieved recognition in arts and culture include Alejandro Jodorowsky , now established in France and best known for his literary and theatrical work.
Volodia Teitelboim , poet and former leader of the Chilean Communist Party , is one of the many Jews to have held important political positions in the country. Many of the country's most important companies, particularly in the retail and commercial field, have been set up by Jews. It is estimated that some reached northern areas of Colombia, which at the time was known as New Granada. Most if not all of these people assimilated into Colombian society.
Some continue to practice traces of Sephardic Jewish rituals as family traditions. These Jews started practicing their religion openly in Colombia at the end of the 18th century, although it was not officially legal to do so, given the established Catholic Church. After independence, Judaism was recognized as a legal religion. The government granted the Jews land for a cemetery. Many Jews who came during the 18th and 19th centuries achieved prominent positions in Colombian society. Some married local women and felt they had to abandon or diminish their Jewish identity.
Coincidentally, these persons and their families settled in the Cauca Valley region of Colombia. They have continued to be influential members of society in cities such as Cali. Over the generations most of their descendants were raised as secular Christians. Shortly after, Jewish immigrants began to arrive from Eastern Europe. A wave of Ashkenazi immigrants came after the rise of Nazism in and the imposition of anti-Semitic laws and practices, including more than 7, German Jews.
From until the end of World War II, immigration was put to a halt by anti-immigrant feelings in the country and restrictions on immigration from Germany. Colombia asked Germans who were on the U. The changing economy and wave of kidnappings during the last decade of the 20th century led many members of Colombia's Jewish community to emigrate. Most settled in Miami and other parts of the United States. Successes in the nation's Democratic Security Policy has encouraged citizens to return; it has drastically reduced violence in the rural areas and criminality rates in urban areas, as well as in spurring the economy.
The situation in Colombia has improved to the extent that many Venezuelan Jews are now seeking refuge in Colombia. Smaller communities are found in Cartagena and the island of San Andres. There are 14 official synagogues throughout the country. In the new millennium, after years of study, a group of Colombians with Jewish ancestry formally converted to Judaism in order to be accepted as Jews according to the halakha.
The first Jews in Costa Rica were probably conversos , who arrived in the 16th and 17th centuries with Spanish expeditions. They lived mostly in Central Valley , married local women, and were soon assimilated into the country's general society. Most eventually gave up Judaism altogether. The term Polacos , which was originally a slur referring to these immigrants, has come to mean door-to-door salesman in colloquial Costa Rican Spanish.
Along with a wave of nationalism, in the s there was some anti-Semitism in Costa Rica, but generally there have been few problems. Since the late 20th century there has been a fourth wave of Jewish immigration made up of American and Israeli expatriates who are retiring here or doing business in the country. The Jewish community is estimated to number 2, to 3, people, most of them living in the capital. A couple of synagogues are located here, as well as a kosher deli and restaurant.
The Plaza Rohrmoser shopping center had the only kosher Burger King in the country. In , the Chaim Weizmann comprehensive school in San Jose had over students in kindergarten, primary, and secondary grades learning in both Spanish and Hebrew. Jews have lived on the island of Cuba for centuries. Early colonists generally married native women and few of their descendants, after centuries of residence, practice Judaism today. There was significant Jewish immigration to Cuba in the first half of the 20th century, as noted in other countries of Latin America.
There were 15, Jews in Cuba in , but many Jewish businessmen and professionals left Cuba for the United States after the Cuban revolution , fearing class persecution under the Communists. In the early s, Operation Cigar was launched, and in the period of five years, more than Cuban Jews secretly immigrated to Israel. Converso Merchants of Sephardic origin arrived in southern Hispaniola during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, fleeing the outcome of the Spanish Inquisition. Over the centuries, many Jews and their descendants assimilated into the general population and some have converted into the Catholic religion, although many of the country's Jews still retain elements of the Sephardic culture of their ancestors.
Sosua , meanwhile, is a small town close to Puerto Plata was founded by Ashkenazi Jews fleeing the rising Nazi regime of the s. Rafael Trujillo , the country's dictator, welcomed many Jewish refugees to his island mainly for their skills rather than for religious persecution.
Present-day Sosua still possesses a synagogue and a museum of Jewish history. Descendants of both Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews can still be found in many other villages and towns on the north of the island close to Sosua. Others came from Germany in , on a ship called the "Koenigstein". During the years , there were a population of 2, Jewish immigrants. In , the Jewish population, mostly German and Polish Jews , were expelled by a decree of the Italian influenced government of Alberto Enriquez Gallo. The antisemitism spread in the population, but was stopped by the intervention of the American embassy.
In , there was a reported population of 3, The rise of Jewish immigration to Ecuador was when the Holocaust started. In , there was an estimation of 4, persons living in Ecuador. Most of the active Jewish communities in Ecuador are from German origin. The majority of Ecuadorian Jews live in Quito and Guayaquil.
There is a Jewish school in Quito. Now in in Ecuador there are only reported Jews in the country. Olga Fis valued and spread the Ecuadorian folk art, Constanza Capua conducted archaeological, anthropological and colonial art.
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From Sephardic ancestry were Leonidas Gilces and his younger brother Angel Theodore Gilces whom helped many immigrants such as Charles Liebman who reach the capital with his library, which became the most important of the capital. Simon Goldberg who had a library in Berlin, Goethe library of old books that contributed to the dissemination of reading.
Vera Kohn was a psychologist and teacher, tasks that at mid-century were not of interest of Ecuadorian women who used to live in their homes given away, devoid of intellectual curiosity and only care about social life. They were not interested in politics, with the exception of Paul Beter, belonging to the second generation of Jews, who became Minister of Economy and Central Bank President. Alsatian-born Bernardo Haas, who came to El Salvador in , was believed to be the country's first Jewish immigrant.
De Sola helped to found the first synagogue and became an invaluable member of the Jewish community. Some had their relatives in El Salvador. But some were forced to go into countries such as Brazil, Ecuador , Guatemala and Panama. On September 11, , the community started and continues to support a school "Colegio Estado de Israel". According to the latest Census, there are currently about Jews living in El Salvador, mostly in the capital city of San Salvador.
Most of them have Sephardic roots. There is a small town called Armenia in rural El Salvador where people practice ultra orthodox Sephardic Judaism since the inquisition. Later on September 12, , came Portuguese Jews from Brazil. The company appointed David Nassy, a Brazilian refugee, patron of an exclusive Jewish settlement on the western side of the island of Cayenne , an area called Remire or Irmire.
The French agreed to those terms, an exceptional policy that was not common among the French colonies. Nevertheless, nearly two-thirds of the population left for the Dutch colony of Suriname. Over the decades, the Leghorn Jews of Cayenne immigrated to Suriname. In , the remaining Jewish community was captured by the occupying British forces and moved the population to either Suriname or Barbados to work in sugarcane production.
Since the late 17th century, few Jews have lived in French Guiana.
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In , 20 Jewish families from Suriname and North Africa attempted to re-establish the community in Cayenne. A Chabad organization exists in the country and maintains Jewish life within the community. Today, Jews live in French Guiana, predominately in Cayenne. The Jews in Guatemala are mainly descendants from immigrants from Germany, Eastern Europe and the Middle East that arrived in the second half of the 19th century and first half of the 20th.
Immigrants from the Middle East mainly Turkey immigrated during the first three decades of the 20th century. Many immigrated during World War II. There are approximately Jews living in Guatemala today. Most live in Guatemala City. In , numerous members of the communities Lev Tahor and Toiras Jesed , who practice a particularly austere form of Orthodox Judaism, began settling in the village of San Juan La Laguna.
Mainstream Jewish communities felt concerned about the reputation following this group, who had left both the US and Canada under allegations of child abuse, underage marriage and child neglect. Despite the tropical heat, the members of the community continued to wear the long black cloaks for men and full black chador for women. When Christopher Columbus arrived in Santo Domingo , as he named it, among his crew was an interpreter, Luis de Torres , who was Jewish.
Luis was one of the first Jews to settle on Santo Domingo in Others immigrated from English colonies such as Jamaica, contributing to the merchant trade. In , Louis XIV banned all religions except Catholicism in the French colonies , and ordered the expulsion of Jews, but this was lightly enforced.
After the French Revolution instituted religious freedom in , additional Jewish merchants returned to Saint-Domingue and settled in several cities. In the late eighteenth century at the time of the French Revolution, the free people of color pressed for more rights in Saint-Domingue, and a slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture broke out in in the North of the island. Slaves considered Jews to be among the white oppressor group. Foreigners were prohibited from owning land and subject to other restrictions. Planters and other whites were killed in , and Jews were among the whites and people of color who fled to the United States, many settling in New Orleans or Charleston.
Race, as defined in slavery years, and nationality became more important in Haiti in the 19th century than religion, and Jews were considered whites and nationals of their groups. Most Jews settled in port cities, where they worked as traders and medrchants. In a crowd in Port-au-Prince attacked a group of Jews but was drawn back by militia men. By the end of the 19th century, a small number of Mizrahi Jewish families immigrated to Haiti from Lebanon , Syria and Egypt ; there were a higher number of Levantine Christian traders arriving at the same time.
German Jews arrived with other German businessmen; they were highly acculturated and were considered part of the German community. During the 20 years of American occupation, many of the Jews emigrated to the United States. The US and Haiti had joint interests in reducing the number and influence of foreign businessmen. They retained control of any naturalization of foreigners, restricting it. During this time, Jews lived on the island. Most of the Jews stayed until the late s, when they moved on to the United States or Israel.
Haiti and Israel maintain full diplomatic relations, but Israel's nearest permanent diplomat to the region is based in neighboring Dominican Republic. There were also immigration from Greece, who are of Sephardic origin and Turkey and North Africa, who are of Mizrachi origin.
Throughout the s and s, it has been absorbed a huge number of Jewish immigrants from Israel. Through the past two decades, the Honduras experienced a resurgence of Jewish life. Communities in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula grew more active. In , the hurricane Mitch destroyed the synagogue, which was part of the Jewish community center in the Honduras. But the Jewish community contributed money to re-build the temple. Most Honduran Jews live in Tegucigalpa. The history of the Jews in Jamaica predominantly dates back to the s when many Jews from Portugal and Spain fled the persecution of the Holy Inquisition.
A recent study has now estimated that nearly , Jamaicans are descendants of Jewish Sephardic immigrants to Jamaica from Portugal and Spain from to the present, either by birth or ancestry. Jewish documents, gravestones written in Hebrew and recent DNA testing have proven this. While many are non-practicing, it is recorded that over 20, Jamaicans religiously identify as Jews.
New Christians arrived in Mexico as early as Due to the strong Catholic Church presence in Mexico, few conversos and even fewer Jews migrated there after the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. Then, in the late 19th century, a number of German Jews settled in Mexico as a result of invitations from Maximilian I of Mexico , followed by a huge wave of Ashkenazic Jews fleeing pogroms in Russia and Eastern Europe.
A second large wave of immigration occurred as the Ottoman Empire collapsed, leading many Sephardic Jews from Turkey, Morocco , and parts of France to flee. According to the Census, there are 67,  Jews in Mexico, making them the third largest Jewish community in Latin America.
In the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, there is a thriving Jewish community that has been growing over the past decade. In , Chabad Headquarters in New York decided to send their first representatives to Quintana Roo, in order to spread Judaism and to teach people Torah. They appointed Rabbi Mendel Druk as the regional representative, he arrived with his wife Rachel and their young baby girl. They quickly got to know all the local Jews and started serving them, along with tourist for all their Jewish needs. In they opened a Chabad branch in Playa del Carmen to expand their activities.